Space-Time with Bound Cluster

Dense regions reach a maximum size and then fall back into a bound object like a cluster of galaxies. Once the cluster is formed, its physical size remains essentially constant. The space-time diagram below

S-T diag with cluster

shows a dense region in blue on the left. All of the particles in this diagram are moving solely under the influence of gravity. The galaxies in the blue region are accelerating more just because the region is denser and therefore has higher gravitational forces. There is no mysterious force causing the expansion of the Universe that would cause bound systems like the Solar System to expand.

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